The Science & References Behind T5

Chapter 1

Ailhaud G, et al. Fatty acid composition as an early determinant of childhood obesity. Genes Nutrition. 2007;2:39-40.

Ailhaud G, et al. Fatty acid composition of fats is an early determinant of childhood obesity: A short review and an opinion. Obesity Reviews. 2004;5:21-26.

Ailhaud G, et al., Temporal changes in dietary fats: Role of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and excessive adipose tissue development in relationship to obesity. Progress in Lipid Research. 2006;45:203-236.

Arterburn LM, Hall EB, Oken H. Distribution, interconversion, and dose response of n-3 fatty acids in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006;83:S1467-S1476.

Baxter LR, et al. Caudate glucose metabolic rate changes with both drug and behavior therapy for OCD. Archives of General Psychiatry 1992;49:681-689.

Blasbalg TL, et al. Changes in consumption of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the United States during the twentieth century. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2011;93:950-962.

Bouchenak M, et al. Nutritional quality of legumes, and their role in cardiometabolic risk prevention: a review. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2013;16(3):185-198.

Cherniack, PE. A berry thought-provoking idea: the potential role of plant polyphenols in the treatment of age-related cognitive disorders. British Journal of Nutrition. 2012;108:794-800.

Cleland LG, James MJ, Neumann MA, et al. Linoleate inhibits EPA incorporation from dietary fish-oil supplements in human subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1992;55:395-399.

Crawford MA, Broadhurst CL, Cunnane C, et al. Rift Valley lake fish and shellfish provided brain-specific nutrition for early Homo. British Journal of Nutrition. 1988;79:3-21.

Engler MM, et al. Antioxidant vitamins C and E improve endothelial function in children with hyperlipidemia: Endothelial Assessment of Risk from Lipids in Youth (EARLY) Trial. Circulation. 2003;108(9):1059-1063.

Goel A. Curcumin: Nature’s Answer to Cancer and Other Chronic Diseases. Brevaed, NC: Take Charge Books, 2016.

Hibbeln JR, Nieminen L, Blasbalg TL, et al. Healthy intakes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids: Estimations considering worldwide diversity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;83:S1483-S1493.

Jacobs EJ et al. Waist size and all-cause mortality in a large U.S. cohort. Archives Internal Medicine. 2010;170:1293-1301.

Johnston CS, et al. Examination of the antiglycemic properties of vinegar in healthy adults. Annals of Nutrition Metabolism 2010;56:74-79.

Kearns CE, et al. Sugar industry and coronary heart disease research: a historical analysis of internal industry documents. JAMA Internal Medicine. 2016;176(11):1680-1685.

Lands WE. Fish, Omega-3 and Human Health. 2nd ed. Urbana, IL: AOCS Books, 2005.

McMartin, SE. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and mental health disorders: evidence from ive waves of a national survey of Canadians. Preventive Medicine. 2013;56(3-4):225-230.

Mozaffarian D, et al. Plasma and phospholipid long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and total and cause-specific mortality in older adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study. Annals of Internal Medicine 2013;158:515-525.

Ramsden CE, Hibbeln JR, Majchrzak SF, et al. n-6 fatty acid-specific and mixed polyunsaturated dietary inventions have different effects on CHD risk: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. British Journal of Nutrition. 2010;104:1586-1600.

Simopoulos, AP. The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 2002;56:365-379.

Willett, WC. Dietary fat plays a major role on obesity: No. Obesity Reviews 2002;3:59-68.

Chapter 2

Afshin A, et al. Consumption of nuts and legumes and risk of incident ischemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2014;100(1):278-288. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.076901.

Bekkering P, et al. The intricate association between gut microbiota and development of type 1, type 2 and type 3 diabetes. Expert Review of Clinical Immunology 2013;9:1031-1041.

Blaak EE, et al. Impact of postprandial glycemia on health and prevention of disease. Obesity Reviews. 2013;13:923-984.

Li J, et al. Improvement in chewing activity reduces energy intake in one meal and modulates plasma gut hormone concentrations in obese and lean young Chinese men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2011;94(3):709-716.

Lin HJ, et al. Postprandial glucose improves the risk prediction of cardiovascular death beyond the metabolic syndrome in the nondiabetic population. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1721-1726.

Ludwig, DS, et al. Artificially sweetened beverages: cause for concern. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2009;302(22):2477-2478.

Robinson E, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis examining the effect of eating rate on energy intake and hunger. American Journal Clinical Nutrition. 2014;100:123-151.

Schiffman SS, et al. Sucralose, a synthetic organochlorine sweetener: overview of biological issues. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. 2013; 16(7): 399–451.

Sears W, et al. The Healthiest Kid in the Neighborhood. Little, Brown, 2006.

Sinha R, et al. Meat intake and mortality: A prospective study of over half a million people. Archives Internal Medicine. 2009;169:562-571.

Chapter 3

Boutcher SH. High-intensity intermittent exercise and fat loss. Journal of Obesity. 2011;2011:868305.

Colburt LH et al. Physical activity, exercise, and inflammatory markers in older adults: Findings from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Journal of American Geriatrics Society. 2004;52:1098.

Curl CL. Organophosphorus pesticide exposure of urban and suburban preschool children with organic and conventional diets. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2003;111:377-382.

Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. New England Journal of Medicine. 2002;346:393-403.

Godfrey RJ, et al. The exercise-induced growth hormone response in athletes. Sports Medicine. 2003;33(8):599-613.

Heydari M, et al. The effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise on body composition of overweight young males. Journal of Obesity. 2012;2012:480467.

Hoffman J, et al. Aging enhances the sensitivity of endothelial cells toward apoptotic stimuli: important role of nitric oxide. Circulation Research. 2001;89(8):709-715.

Ignarro LJ. No More Heart Disease: How Nitric Oxide Can Prevent—Even Reverse—Heart Disease and Strokes. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2005.

Khazan O. For depression, prescribing exercise before medication. The Atlantic. March, 2014.

Gleeson M, Bishop N, Walsh N. Exercise Immunology. New York: Routledge, 2013.

Houston M. Vascular Biology in Clinical Practice. Philadelphia: Hanley & Belfus, 2002.

Hu, FB, et al. Television watching and other sedentary behaviors in relation to risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2003;289(14):1785–1791.

Kawano, H, et al. Hyperglycemia rapidly suppresses flow-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation of brachial artery. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 1999;34(1):146-154.

Larsson M, et al. Associations between indoor environmental factors and parental-reported autistic spectrum disorders in children 6-8 years of age. Neurotoxicology 2009;30:822-831.

Ogita H, et al. Endothelial function and oxidative stress. Endothelium. 2004;11(2):123-132.

Rush, JW, et al. Vascular nitric oxide and oxidative stress: determinants of endothelial adaptations to cardiovascular disease and to physical activity. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology. 2005;30(4):442-474.

Ryan RM, et al. Vitalizing effects of being outdoors in nature. Journal of Environmental Psychology. 2010;30:159-168.

Seifert T, et al. Endurance training enhances BDNF release from the human brain. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 2010;298(2):R372-7.

Taylor AF, et al. Coping with ADD: The surprising connection to green play settings. Environment and Behavior. 2001;33:54-77.

Ulrich R. View through a window may influence recovery from surgery. Science. 1984;224:420-421.

Vandewalle G, et al. Daytime light exposure dynamically enhances brain responses. Current Biology. 2006;1:1616-1621.

Wells WM. At home with nature effects of “greenness” on children’s cognitive functioning. Environment and Behavior. 2000;32:775-795.

Wideman L, et al. Growth hormone release during acute and chronic aerobic and resistance exercise: recent findings. Sports Medicine. 2002;32(15):987-1004.

Yamaguchi M et al. The effects of exercise in forest and urban environments on sympathetic nervous activity of normal young adults. Journal of International Medical Research. 2006;34:152-159.

Chapter 4

Danner D. Positive emotions in early life and longevity: Findings from the Nun Study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2001;80:804-813.

Davidson RJ, et al. 2008. Buddha’s brain: Neuroplasticity and meditation. IEEE Signal Process Magazine. January 1, 2008;25:176.

Gibala MJ et al. Physiological adaptations to low-volume, high-intensity interval training in health and disease. Journal of Physiology. 2012;590(5):1077-1084.

Humphries P, et al. Direct and indirect cellular effects of aspartame on the brain. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2008;62(4):451-462.

Kalyani BG, et al. Neurohemodynamic correlates of ‘OM’ chanting: A pilot functional magnetic resonance imaging study. International Journal of Yoga. 2011;4(1):3-6.

Kaplan S. Meditation restoration and the management of mental fatigue. Environment and Behavior 2001;33:480-506.

Lundberg JO, et al. Nitric oxide but not carbon monoxide is continuously released in the human nasal airways. The European Respiratory Journal. 2002;20(1):100-3.

Maniscalco M, et al. Assessment of nasal and sinus nitric oxide output using single-breath humming exhalations. European Respiratory Journal. 2003;22(2):323-329.

Newberg A, Waldman MR. How God Changes Your Brain: Breakthrough Findings from a Leading Neuroscientist. New York: Harper Wave, 2016.

Pollard I. Meditation and brain function: A review. Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics. 2004;14:28-34.

Schwartz J, Begley S. The Mind and the Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force. New York: HarperCollins, 2002.

Segerstrom SC, et al. Psychological stress and the human immune system: A meta-analytic study of 30 years of inquiry. Psychological Bulletin 2004;130:601-630.

Weitzberg E, et al. Humming greatly increases nasal nitric oxide. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2002;166(2):144-145.

Chapter 5

Borysenko, J. Minding the Body, Mending the Mind. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2007.

Ornish, D. Love and Survival: The Scientific Basis for the Healing Power of Intimacy. New York: HarperCollins, 1998.

Chapter 6

Alcock J, et al. Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary Pressures and Potential Mechanisms. 2014;36(10):940-949.

Angelakis E, et al. The relationship between gut microbiota and weight gain in humans. Future Microbiology. 2012;7:91-109.

Bengmark S. Nutrition of the critically ill—a 21st century perspective. Nutrients. 2012;2:36.

Blaser, M. Missing Microbes: How the Overuse of Antibiotics Is Fueling Our Modern Plagues. New York: Holt, 2014.

Chichlowski M, et al. Bifido bacteria isolated from infants and cultured on human milk oligosaccharides affect intestinal epithelial function. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 2012;55:321-327.

Chutkan R. The Microbiome Solution. New York: Random House, 2015.

Huda M, et al. Stool microbiota and vaccine responses of infants. Pediatrics. 2014;134:1-11.

Makinen KK. Sugar alcohol caries incidence and remineralization of caries agents: A literature review. International Journal of Dentistry. 2010;1-23. doi:10.1155/2010/981072.

Makinen KK, et al. Similarity of the effects of erythritol and xylitol on some risk factors of dental caries. Caries Research 2005;39:207-215. doi:10.1159/000084800.

Mayer E. The Mind-Gut Connection. New York: Harper Wave, 2016.

Mueller N, et al. The infant microbiome development: Mom matters. Trends in Molecular Medicine. 2015;21:109-117.

Mullin GE. Gut Balance Revolution. New York: Rodale, 2015.

Petra AI, et al. Gut-microbiota-brain axis and its effects on neuropsychiatric disorders with suspected immune dysregulation. Clinical Therapeutics. 2015;37(5):984-995.

Rafter J, et al. Dietary symbiotics reduce cancer risk factors in polypectomized and colon cancer patients. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007; 85:488-496.

Ruhaac L, et al. Analysis and role of oligosaccharides in milk. BMB Reports. 2012;45:442-451.

Sears, W. The Inflammation Solution: When Everything Works and Nothing Hurts. Englewood, CO: Dr. Sears’ Wellness Institute Library.

Sela D, Mills D. Nursing our microbiota: Molecular linkages between bifido bacteria and milk oligosaccharides. Trends in Microbiology. 2010;18:298-307.

Underwood M, et al. Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis: Champion colonizer of the infant gut. Pediatric Research. 2015;77:229-235.

Underwood M, et al. Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis: Alterations in inflammation, innate immune response, and the microbiota. Pediatric Research. 2014;76(4):326-333.

Underwood M, et al. A comparison of two probiotic strains of bifido bacteria in premature infants. Journal of Pediatrics. 2013;163:1585-1591.

Chapter 7

Alling, FA. The healing effects of belief in medical practices and spirituality. Explore. 2015;11(4):273-280.

Birdsill AC, et al. Low cerebral blood flow associated with lower memory function in metabolic syndrome. Obesity. 2013;21(7):1313-1320. doi:10.1002/oby.20170.

Bullitt E, et al. The effect of exercise on the cerebral vasculature of healthy aged subjects as visualized by MR angiography. American Journal of Neuroradiology. 2009;30(10):1857-1863.

Chaddock, L, et al. A neuroimaging investigation of the association between aerobic fitness, hippocampal volume, and memory performance in preadolescent children. Brain Research. 2010;1358:172-183.

Cherbuin N, et al. Higher normal fasting plasma glucose is associated with hippocampal atrophy: the PATH study. Neurology. 2012;79(10):1019-1026.

Cholerton B, et al. Insulin resistance and pathological brain ageing. Diabetic Medicine. 2011;28(12):1463-1475.

SJ, et al. Aerobic exercise training increases brain volume in aging humans. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2006;61:1166-1170.

Corripio JM, et al. Plasma-derived neurotropic factor in pre-pubertal obese children. Results from two-year lifestyle intervention program. Clinical Endocrinology. 2012;77:715-720.

Danner D. Positive emotions in early life and longevity: Findings from the Nun Study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2001;80:804-813.

Debette S, et al. Visceral fat is associated with lower brain volume in healthy middle-aged adults. Annals Neurology. 2010;68:136-144.

A, et al. Exercise and mental health: many reasons to move. Neuropsychobiology. 2009;59:191-198.

Erickson KI, et al. Aerobic fitness is associated with hippocampal volume in elderly humans. Hippocampus. 2009;19(10):1030-1039.

Erickson KI, et al. Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2011;108(7):3017-3022.

Fortanasce V. The Anti-Alzheimer’s Prescription: The Science-Proven Plan to Start at Any Age. New York: Gotham Books, 2008.

Griffin ÉW, et al. Aerobic exercise improves hippocampal function and increases BDNF in the serum of young adult males. Physiology & Behavior. 2011;104(5):934-941.

Ho AJ, et al. Obesity is linked with lower brain volume in 700 AD and MCI patients. Neurobiology of Aging. 2010;31:1326-1339.

Koenig HG. Religion, spirituality, and health: a review and update. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine. 2015;29(3):19-26.

Lipton BH. The Biology of Belief. New York: Hay House, 2005.

Luders E, et al. The underlying anatomical correlates of long-term meditation: larger hippocampal and frontal volumes of gray matter. NeuroImage. 2009;45(3):672-678.

Mota-Pereira J, et al. Moderate exercise improves depression parameters in treatment-resistant patients with major depressive disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2011;45(8):1005-11.

Perlmutter, D. Brain Maker. New York: Little, Brown, 2015.

Schwartz J, Begley S. The Mind and the Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force. New York: HarperCollins, 2002.

Selhub EM, Logan AC. Your Brain on Nature. Mississauga, Ontario: Wiley, 2012.

Siegel D. The Mindful Brain: Reflection and Attunement in the Cultivation of Well-being. New York: W.W. Norton, 2007.

Chapter 8

Arcaro G, et al. Insulin causes endothelial dysfunction in humans. Circulation. 2002;105:576.

Caligiuri MA. Human natural killer cells. Blood. 2008;112:461-469.

Ceriello A, et al. International Diabetes Federation guideline for management of postmeal glucose: a review of recommendations. Diabetic Medicine. 2008;25(10):1151-1156

Cunningham A. How psychological therapy may prolong survival in cancer patients: New evidence and a simple theory. Integrative Cancer Therapies. 2004;3:214-229.

DeSouza CA, et al. Regular exercise prevents and restores age-related declines in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in healthy men. Circulation. 2000;102:1351-1357.

Dickinson KM, et al. Endothelial function is impaired after a high-salt meal in healthy subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2011;93:500-505.

Drewnoski A, et al. Sodium intakes of U.S. children and adults from foods and beverages by location of origin and by specific food source. Nutrients. 2013;5:1840-1855.

Dunaief DM, et al. Glycemic and cardiovascular control parameters improved in type 2 diabetes with high nutrient density diet. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2012;2(3):364-371.

Friedenreich CM, et al. Physical activity and cancer prevention: Etiologic evidence and biologic mechanisms. Journal of Nutrition. 2002;132:3456s-3464s.

Gerstein HC, et al. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine. 2008;358:2545-2559.

Harris W, et al. N-3 fatty acids and urinary excretion of nitric oxide metabolites in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1997;65:459-464.

Lustig RH. Fat Chance: Beating the Odds Against Sugar, Processed Food, Obesity, and Disease. New York: Plume, 2014.

Moseley JB, et al. A controlled trial of arthroscopic surgery for osteoarthritis of the knee. New England Journal of Medicine. 2002;347:81-88.

Niemi M. Placebo effect: A cure in the mind. Scientific American Mind. 2009;20:42-49.

Ornish D, et al. Intensive lifestyle changes may affect the progress of prostate cancer. Journal of Urology. 2005;174:1065-1070.

Pedersen L, et al. Voluntary running suppresses tumor growth through epinephrine and IL-6 dependent NK cell mobilization and redistribution. Cell Metabolism. 2016;23:554-562.

Pollard I. Meditation and brain function: A review. Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics. 2004;14:28-34.

Rodriguez-Leyva D, et al. Potent antihypertensive action of dietary flaxseed in hypertensive patients. Hypertension. 2013;62:1081-1089.

Rudelt A, et al. Fourteen-year trends in sodium content of menu offerings at eight leading fast-food restaurants in the USA. Public Health Nutrition. 2014;17:1682-1688.

Servan-Schreiber D. Anticancer: A New Way of Life. New York: Viking, 2009.

Vita JA. Endothelial dysfunction. Circulation. 2011;124:e906-e912.

Wang F, et al. Erectile dysfunction and fruit/vegetable among diabetic Canadian men. Urology. 2013;82:1330-1335.

Westerlind KC. Physical activity and cancer prevention—mechanisms. Medicine & Science in Sports and Exercise. 2003;35(11):1834-1840.

Chapter 9

Fraser GE. Vegetarian diets: What do we know of their effects on common chronic illnesses? American Journal Clinical Nutrition. 2009;89:1607s-1612s.

Frisardi V, et al. Nutraceutical properties of Mediterranean diet and cognitive decline: Possible underlying mechanisms. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. 2010;22:715-740.

Knutson, KL, et al. The metabolic consequences of sleep deprivation. Sleep Medicine Reviews. 2007;11:163-178.

Yung LC, et al. High antioxidant intakes are associated with decreased chromosome translocation frequency in airline pilots. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2009;90:1402-1410.